5G Forensics

This IEEE Video Applies to Current & Future Forensic Mobile Network Analysis

Reference Resource Supporting the Science of Forensic Mobile Network Analysis 
The contents are divided into multiple categories of applicable information including learning assistance, legal reference, standards, guidance documents, published research articles, patents, technical reference documents, and whitepapers.

Legal Related References

Pennsylvania Superior Court. (PSC)(2016). Commonwealth of Pennsylvania vs. Bryant Jones, No. 865 WDA 2015 (page 17). Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from http://www.pacourts.us/assets/opinions/Superior/out/J-S37012-16m.pdf

United States Courts Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE).(2019). Exception to the Rule Against Hearsay. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.rulesofevidence.org/article-viii/rule-803/

O’Malley, T.A. (2011, November). Using historical cell site analysis evidence in criminal trials, The United States Attorney’s Bulletin, 59(6), 16. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files /usao/legacy/2011/11/30/usab5906.pdf

Standards Organizations References

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)(2018), Standard Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence. Retrieved on December 15, 2018 from https://compass.astm.org/EDIT/html annot.cgi?E2916+13#s00007

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)(2018). ASTM E3016-18 Standard Guide for Establishing Confidence in Digital and Multimedia Evidence Forensic Results by Error Mitigation Analysis. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3016.htm

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2005). Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging architecture and principles (3GPP TS 32.240 version 6.2.0 Release 6) Retrieved on January 4, 2019,from http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsits/132200 132299/132240/06.02.00 60/ts 132240v060200p.pdf

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2014) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management; Charging management; Diameter charging applications. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi-ts/132200-132299/132299/09.17.00-60/ts-132299v091700p.pdf

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2016). Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunications management; Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) file format and transfer (#GPP TS version 13.2.0 Release 13). Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsits/132200_132299/132297/13.02.0060/ts_132297v130200p.pdf

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2017). ETSI Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) parameter description. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi ts/132200132299/132298/12.06.00_60/ts132298v120600p.pdf

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)(2012). Information technology | Security techniques | Guidelines for identification, collection, acquisition and preservation of digital evidence. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:isoiec:27037:ed-1:v1:en

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)(2002). Guidelines for Evidence Collection and Archiving. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3227.txt
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)(2005). Common Format and MIME Type for Comma-Separated Values (CSV) Files. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4180

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)(2011). Fundamental Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithms. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6090

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)(2016). Elliptic Curves for Security. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7748

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)(2000). DIGITAL SIGNATURE STANDARD (DSS). Retrieved on December 14, 2019, from https://csrc.nist.gov/csrc/media/publications/fips/186/2/archive/2000-01-27/documents/fips186-2.pdf

https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/136100_136199/136101/10.02.01_60/ts_136101v100201p.pdf

5G PPP Architecture Working Group. (2016, July). View on 5G architecture, Version 1.0. Retrieved from https://5g-ppp.eu/wpcontent/ uploads/2014/02/5G-PPP-5GArchitecture- WP-July-2016.pdf

Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI). (2015). Distributed antenna system (DAS) design and implementation best practices. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/BICSI 006-2015. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://www.bicsi.org/book_details.aspx?B ook=BICSI-006-CM-15-v5&d=0

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2017). ETSI Conformance Testing Web page. Retrieved on March 2, 2017, from http://www.etsi.org/technologiesclusters/ technologies/testing

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (n.d.). Universal licensing system Web site. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://wireless.fcc.gov/uls/index.htm

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2001, January). Fact sheet: FCC wireless 911 requirements. Retrieved on January 25, 2017, from https://transition.fcc.gov/pshs/services/91 1- services/enhanced911/archives/factsheet_r equirements_012001.pdf

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2013, October 1). Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA). CFR 22.911. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR- 2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47- vol2-sec22-911.pdf

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2015, January 29). Wireless E911 location accuracy requirements. PS Docket No. 07- 114. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attach match/FCC-15-9A1.pdf

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2016, October 25). Understanding wireless telephone coverage areas. Retrieved on December 14, 2016, from https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/understanding-wireless-telephone-coverageareas

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (n.d.a). Deterministic networking Networking (detnet) Working groupGroup. (ND). Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved on January 15, 2017, from https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/detnet/documents

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (n.d.b)., Signaling Transport (sigtran) Working Group. Retrieved on December 14, 2016, from https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/sigtran/documents/

United Kingdom Accreditation Service. (2016, May). Accreditation for Forensic Cell Site Analysis – Pilot Update, ISO/IEC 17025. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.ukas.com/news/isoiec-17025- accreditation-for-forensic-cell-site-analysispilot- update-may-2016/

United Kingdom Forensic Science Regulator. (2016, June 9). Codes of Practice and Conduct - Appendix: Digital Forensics - Cell Site Analysis. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/528 197/FSR-C- 135_Cell_Site_Analysis_Issue_1.pdf

Guidance Document References from NIST & Scientific Working Groups

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)(2007). Guidelines on Cell Phone Forensics. Retrieved on December 14, 2019, from http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-101r1.pdf

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)(2006). Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response. Retrieved on December 14, 2019, from http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-86.pdf

Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE)(2017). SWGDE Recommendations for Cell Site Analysis. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.swgde.org/documents/CurrentDocuments/SWGDE Recommendations for Cell site Analysis.

The National Domestic Communications Assistance Center. (NDCAC)(2018).Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://ndcac.fbi.gov/

Ayers, R., Brothers, S., & Jansen, W. (2014). Guidelines on mobile device forensics. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-101, Revision 1. Retrieved from http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialP ublications/NIST.SP.800-101r1.pdf

SWGDE (2017, February 21). Establishing confidence in digital forensic results by error mitigation analysis, Version 1.6, Retrieved on March 1, 2017, from https://www.swgde.org/documents/Curren t%20Documents/SWGDE%20Establishing %20Confidence%20in%20Digital%20Forensi c%20Results%20by%20Error%20Mitigation %20Analysis

Published Research Article References

Tart, M., Pope, S., Baldwin, D., & Bird, R. (2019). Cell site analysis: Roles and Interpretation. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. See: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2019.06.005


Okamura, Y., Ohmori, E., Kawano, T., & Fukuda, K. (1968, September-October). Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service. Review of the Electrical Communication Laboratory, 16(9-10), 825-873.

Ouyang, Y. & Falla, M.H. (2010, March). A performance analysis for UMTS packet switched network based of multivariate KPIs., International Journal of Next- Generation Networks (IJNGN), 2(1), 80-94. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1003/1 003.5438.pdf

Tart, M., Brodie, I., Gleed, N., & Matthews, J. (2012). Historic cell site analysis - Overview of principles and survey methodologies. Digital Investigation, 8(3-4), 185-193. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://viewfromll2.files.wordpress.com/20 15/07/tart-et-al-2012.pdf

Bonomi, Silvia & Casini, Marco & Ciccotelli, Claudio. (2018). B-CoC: A Block-chain-based Chain of Custody for Evidences Management in Digital Forensics. Retrieved on June 6, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326681814 B-CoC A Block-chain-based Chain of Custody for Evidences Management in Digital Forensics

Curran,Kevin, Harran, Martin, & Farrelly, William. (2017). A method for verifying integrity & authenticating digital media. Letterkenny Institute of Technology, Donegal, Ireland, Ulster University, Derry, United Kingdom. Retrieved on June 6, 2019, from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aci.2017.05.006

Gramoli, Vincent & Staples, Mark. (2018). Block-chain Standard: Can We Reach Consensus?. IEEE Communications Standards Magazine. 2. 16-21. 10.1109/M-COMSTD.2018.1800022.

Lone, Auqib Hamid & Mir, Roohie Naaz,. (2019). Forensic-chain: Block-chain based digital forensics chain of custody with PoC in Hyperledger Composer. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, NIT Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190006, India. Retrieved on June 6, 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com /science/arti-cle/pii/S174228761830344X

Xu, X., Broustis, I., Ge, Z., Govindan, R., Mahimkar, A., Shankaranarayanan, N.K., & Wang, J. (2015). Magus: Minimizing Cellular Service Disruption during Network Upgrades, In Proceeding of the UCLA Engineering SIGCOMM 2015 Conference Presentation. doi:10.1145/2716281.2836106

Minor, John B. (2017) "Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology," Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law: Vol. 12: No. 2, Article 7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15394/jdfsl.2017.1474 Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://commons.erau.edu/jdfsl/vol12/iss2/7

Peredo, Oscar & Deschamps, Romain. (2017). Time Accuracy Analysis of Post-Mediation Packet-Switched Charging Data Records for Urban Mobility Applications. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316921278 Time Accuracy Analysis of Post-Mediation Packet-Switched Charging Data Records for Urban Mobility Applications

LTE: User Equipment (UE) States, Jyotsna Agrawal, Dr. P. Mor, Dr. J.M. Keller, Dr. P. Dubey, International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, Special Issue 4, November 2016, See - https://iarjset.com/upload/2016/si/SITES-16/IARJSET-SITES%206.pdf

Minor, John B. (2019) "Forensic Cell Site Analysis: Mobile Network Operator Evidence Integrity Maintenance Research," Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law: Vol. 14 , Article 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15394/jdfsl.2019.1608 Available at: https://commons.erau.edu/jdfsl/vol14/iss2/5

Ali, K.A.A. (2009) Directional cell breathing – A framework for congestion control and load balancing in broadband wireless networks. Retrieved on January 30, 2017, from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/th esescanada/vol2/OKQ/TC-OKQ-1813.pdf

Andleeb, M., & Ali, S.A. (2015). A study on the hourly behavior of key performance indicators of global system for mobile communications, Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 6(3). Retrieved from http://www.cisjournal.org/journalofcomput ing/archive/vol6no3/vol6no3_6.pdf

Atticus, Volume 26 Number 2 (2014, Summer), Privacy on the Line, New York State Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, pp24-35. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/nysacdl/docs/atticuswcc

Bahl, P. (V.), Hajiaghayi, M.T., Jain, K., Mirrokni, S.V., Qiu, L., & Saberi, A. (2007, February). Cell breathing in wireless LANs: Algorithms and evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computingˆ, 6(2). Retrieved from https://www.cs.utexas.edu/~lili/papers/pu b/TMC2006.pdf

Blank, Aaron (2011) The Limitations and Admissibility of Using Historical Cellular Site Data to Track the Location of a Cellular Phone, XVIII RICH. J.L. & TECH. 3. Retrieved from http://jolt.richmond.edu/v18i1/article3.pdf.

Hamid, M., & Kostanic, I. (2013). Path Loss Models for LTE and LTE-A Relay Stations. Universal Journal of Communications and Network, 1, 119-126. DOI: 10.13189/ujcn.2013.010401.

Hata, M. (1980, August). Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 29(3), 317-325. DOI: 10.1109/T-VT.1980.23859.

Patent References

Minor, J. B. (2015). A method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy, U.S. Patent No. 9,113,307. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.google.com/patents/US9113307

Technical Document References

Lee, William W.C. Y. (1995). cell coverage for signal and traffic In S. S. Chapman Second Edition, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications: Analog and Digital Systems, 2nd. ed. (pp.103-156). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Lee, William W.C. Y. (2005). Cell coverage and antennas in Third Edition, Wireless and Cellular Telecommunications, 3rd. ed. (pp.349-424). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

MobileComm Professionals, Inc. (2015). Integrated approach to wireless engineering. Retrieved on February 2, 2017, from http://www.mcpsinc.com/downloads/Mobi leComm_Corporate_Profile.pdf

Heterogeneous Cellular Networks, Rose Qingyang Hu, Yi Qian, June 2013, Publisher(s): Wiley, ISBN: 9781119999126, Chapter 9 - Connected-mode Mobility in LTE Heterogeneous Networks by Carl Weaver and Pantelis Monogioudis with Alcatel-Lucent, USA

Openchain. (2019) Openchain is an open source distributed ledger technology. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.openchain.org/

Hoy, J. (2015). Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Hussain, I. (2005). Understanding high availability of IP and MPLS networks, network and service outages. Cisco Press. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article. asp?p=361409&seqNum=4

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2016, August 10). Wave behaviors. Science Mission Directorate. Retrieved on March 2, 2017, from http://science.nasa.gov/ems/03_behaviors

Industry Whitepaper References

Cisco (2011). The Case for IP Backhaul -The Internet Protocol Journal, Volume 14, No. 3. Retrieved on January 4, 2019, from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/press/internet-protocol-journal/back-issues/table-contents-53/143-backhaul.html

JDSU Drive Testing LTE Whitepaper, February 2012, See - http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/drivetesting_lte_wp_nsd_tm_ae.pdf

Freescale Semiconductor. (2009, February). Wireless Base Station Evolution. Networking and Multimedia Group, Document Number: WBSEVOLWP Rev. 1. Retrieved from http://www.nxp.com/assets/documents/da ta/en/white-papers/WBSEVOLWP.pdf